Chronology and engine specifications



Inventors Year of invention
Amontons 1669
Glazebrook 1797
Glazebrook 1801
Cayley 1807
Stirling 1816
Stirling 1827
Parkinson and Crossley 1828
Arnott 1829
Cayley 1837
Stirling 1840
Woodbury 1853
Shaw 1854
Wilcox 1860


1699

Inventor Amontons
Country France
Engine type Fire wheel
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Rotary engine
Output 34 hp
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Experimental
Engine description Amontons' Hot Air Engine

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1797

Inventor [Glazebrook]()
Country England
Engine type Hot Air Engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Single-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity English patent # 2164 of 1797 - Working machinery by means of the properties of air.
Engine description [Engine description]()

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1801

Inventor Glazebrook
Country England
Engine type Hot Air Engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Single-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity English patent # 2504 of May 21, 1801 - Further improvements upon the methods of working and giving power to machinery by means of the properties of air.
Engine description Engine description

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1807

Inventor Cayley
Country England
Engine type Furnace Air Engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Open-cycle
Working piston Double-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Experimental. The engine was made on a considerable scale at Newcastle, though without success in the result. One of these engines was kept at work for many months to test its capabilities
Engine description Cayley 1807 Engine

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1816

Inventor Stirling
Country Scotland
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Single-acting
Output 2 hp
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Experimental. Built in 1818 for pumping water at an Ayrshire quarry - Scotland, the engine worked some months and was then discontinued.
Engine description Stirling's 1816 Engine

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1827

Inventor Stirling
Country Scotland
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Double-acting
Output N/A
Fuel consumption N/A
Engine maturity Patent that received no immediate practical application. But this patent led to the patent of 1840 that gave the 1842 engine.
Engine description Stirling's 1827 Engine

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1828

Inventor Parkinson and Crosley
Country England
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Arrangement for Single-acting or Double-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity At least two models of this air engine were at work.
Engine description Parkinson and Crossley's Air Engine

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1829

Inventor Arnott
Country England
Engine type Furnace air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Open-cycle
Working piston Arrangement for Single-acting or Double-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Experimental. One experiment has been made by an engineer.
Engine description Arnott's Air Engine

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1837

Inventor Cayley
Country England
Engine type Furnace air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Open-cycle
Working piston Single-acting
Output 8 hp
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Experimental. Cayley’s hot air engine seems to have worked for a short time but it could not be made sufficiently reliable for commercial purposes.
Engine description Cayley's 1837 Engine

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1840

Inventor Stirling
Country Scotland
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Closed-cycle
Working piston Double-acting
Output 10 to 40 hp
Fuel consumption 1 kg coal per hp per hour
Engine maturity An engine built in a Dundee Foundry in 1842: a 21 HP engine replaced later by a 37 HP one. The engines worked alltogether 2 - 3 years and were then discontinued.
Engine description Stirling's 1840 Engine

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1853

Inventor Woodbury
Country USA
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation The first patent was about an open-cycle engine. The second one about a closed-cycle engine.
Working piston Single-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Experimental
Engine description Woodbury's 1853 Engine

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1854

Inventor Shaw
Country USA
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Open-Cycle
Working piston Single-acting
Output Unknown
Fuel consumption Unknown
Engine maturity Some engines were built, but no commercial success
Engine description Shaw's Engine

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1860

Inventor Wilcox
Country USA
Engine type Hot air engine
Combustion External
Working fluid Air
Operation Open-cycle. The engine could be converted into a closed-cycle one.
Working piston Single-acting
Output 1 to 10 hp
Fuel consumption 1.8 kg coal per hp per hour
Engine maturity In practical use in a considerable number of printing establishments and small manufactories.
Engine description Wilcox's 1860 Engine

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